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欣赏一幅图画是朗月点缀星空,喜欢一种气息是幽兰弥漫旷谷.....

 
 
 

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【英语】2008年各省、市高考英语阅读理解长难句  

2010-12-24 13:47:20|  分类: 英语乐园 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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和大家分享这篇日志,我的看法是:

 
原文地址:2008年各省、市高考英语阅读理解长难句    原文作者:m.feir
长难句在阅读理解中容易给考生造成障碍,形成一种心理压力,使考生失分。如果考生面对这些长难句,在短时间内能对它们进行结构解析,确切地理解它们的汉语意思,考生在阅读过程中的问题就会迎刃而解。以下是对2008年各省、市高考英语阅读理解中的一些有代表性的长难句的解析。

 

  1.Their study found that theobromine,found in cocoa,was nearly a third more effective in stopping coughs than codeine,which was considered the best cough medicine at present.

  The Imperial College London researchers who published their results online said the discovery could lead to more effective cough treatment,"while coughing is not necessarily harmful(有害的) it can have a major effect on the quality of life and" this discovery could be a huge step forward in treating this problem," said Professor Peter Barnes.

  (NMET2008全国 ll D篇)

  简析:第一个句子中有一个宾语从句,宾语从句中有一过去分词短语found in cocoa作定语,还有一个非限制性定语从句;第二个句子中有一个定语从句。

  译文:目前,可卡因是最佳的止咳药物,可是他们的研究发现在可可粉中包含的可可碱,其疗效又比可卡因几乎高三分之一。

  在因特网上公布了他们的研究成果的伦敦皇家大学的研究员们说道:这种发现可能有助于找到更有效的治咳方式。彼得·巴恩斯教授说道:"这种发现可能在治咳史上向前迈了一大步"。

  实例: 53.According to Professor Barnes,theobromine______.

  A.cannot be as effective as codeine

  B.can be harmful to people's health

  C.cannot be separated from chocolate

  D.can be a more effective cure for coughs

  2.Much of the energy that comes from the Sun never reaches the Earth's surface.It is either reflected or absorbed by the gases in the upper atmosphere.Of the energy that reaches the lower atmosphere,30% is reflected by clouds or the Earth's surface.The remaining 70% warms the surface of the planet.(NMET 2008 江苏卷B篇)

  简析:句子中含有两个定语从句,这是解题的关键。 either ...or连结的是并列结构。

  译文:来自太阳的大部分能量都不会到达地球的表面,这种能量或者被上层大气中的气体反射或吸收。在到达低层大气的能量中,有30%的能量被云层或地球的表面所反射,剩下的70%使地球的表面温暖。

  实例: 60.Only a small part of the Sun's energy reaches the Earth's surface because most of it is______.

  A.absorbed by the clouds in the lower atmosphere

  B.reflected by the gases in the upper atmosphere

  C.lost in the upper and lower atmosphere

  D.used to evaporate water from the oceans and lakes

  3.The response to her request for help was so huge that Poe established Kids For A Cleaner Environment (Kids F.A.C.E.) in 1989.There are now 300,000 members of Kids FACE worldwide and is the world's largest youth environmental organization.

  (NMET 2008 山东卷D篇)

  简析:第一句中夹杂有一个结果状语从句,又有复杂主语。主语的中心语为The response,其后的to her request for help为后置定语,第二句是由and并列的两个简单句,其中第二句中承前省略了主语kids FACE。

  译文:人们对她请求帮助的反应如此强烈以至于波建立了一个为了更洁净环境的孩子的组织。现在这个组织在全世界有300,000名成员,并且它是世界上最大的青少年环保组织。

  实例:72.Kids F.A.C.E is______.

  A.a program to help students with writing

  B.a project of litter recycling

  C.a campaign launched by President Bush

  D.a club of environmental protection

  73.What can we learn about Poe?

  A.She was awarded a prize in Brazil.

  B.She donated billboard across the country.

  C.She got positive responses for her efforts

  D.She joined the National Park Service.

  4.One of the reasons that made it cool for him not to care was the power of his peer(同龄人) group.(NMET 2008 辽宁卷C篇)

  简析:夹杂定语从句和形式宾语结构。

  译文:对他来说,不关心自己的学习是一种酷的标志的原因之一是受到他的同龄人的影响。

  实例: 64.Why did Tom give up studying?

  A.He disliked his teachers.

  B.His parents no longer supported him.

  C.It's cool for boys of his age not to care about studies.

  D.There were too many subjects in his secondary school.

  5.The endless choice gives birth to anxiety in people's lives.Buying something as basic as a coffee pot is not exactly simple.Easy access to a wide range of everyday goods leads to a sense of powerlessness in many people,ending in the shopper giving up and walking away,or just buying an unsuitable item(商品) that is not really wanted.(NMET 2008重庆卷E篇)

  简析:句子中夹杂着固定短语,v-ing式作主语,复杂主语,v-ing式作结果状语以及定语从句。

  译文:无穷尽的选择给人们的生活带来了无尽的烦恼。买像咖啡壶这样最基本的东西也不是那么简单了。对许多人而言,面对触手可及的一系列的日常用品却感到眼花瞭乱、不知所措,结果是购物者只好放弃选择、匆匆而去,或者仅仅买了一件并非真正需要的不合适的商品。

  实例:73.Why do more choices of goods give rise to anxiety?

  A.Professionals find it hard to decide on a suitable product.

  B.People are likely to find themselves overcome by business persuasion.

  C.Shoppers may find themselves lost in the broad range of items.

  D.Companies and advertisers are often misleading about the range of choice.

  6.As the only girl in a family of seven children,she often felt like she had "seven fathers," because her six brothers,as well as her father,tried to control her.Feeling shy and unimportant,she retreated(躲避) into books.Despite her love of reading,she did not do well in elementary school because she was too shy to participate.(NMET 2008天津卷A篇)

  简析:第一句主干结构为she felt like ...because ...,句首内容为状语,because从句中有一个插入成份。第二句中v-ing作状语表原因。第三句主干结构为:she didn't ...because ...。

  译文:作为家庭七个孩子中唯一的女孩,她常常有一种感觉,就是她拥有"七个父亲",原因是她的六个兄弟和她的父亲都想控制她。由于羞怯和觉得无地位的缘故,她总是埋头苦读。尽管她酷爱读书,可是在小学她的成绩不佳,因为她太害羞而不能积极地参与。

实例:36.Which of the following is TRUE about Cisneros in her childhood?

  A.She had seven brothers.

  B.She felt herself a nobody.

  C.She was too shy to go to school.

  D.She did not have any good teachers.

  7.They may think that eating lunch is the cause of the sleepiness.Or,in summer,they may think it is the heat.However,the real reason lies inside their bodies.At that time -about eight hours after you wake up-your body temperature goes down.This is what makes you slow down and feel sleepy.

  (NMET 2008 四川卷C篇)

  简析:句中夹杂两个宾语从句,一个时间状语从句和一个what引导的表语从句。

  译文:他们可能认为吃午饭是他们困乏的原因。或者在夏天,他们可能认为是炎热的缘故。然而,真正的原因在于他们身体的内部。在那时,也就是说,在你醒来大约八个小时之后,你的体温开始呈下降的趋势。这就是使你行动迟缓并且感到困乏的原因。

  实例:44.Why do people feel sleepy in the early afternoon according to the text?

  A.They eat too much for lunch.

  B.They sleep too little at night.

  C.Their body temperature becomes lower.

  D.The weather becomes a lot warmer.

  8.These brain differences also explain the fact that more men take up jobs that require good spatial skills,while more women speech skills.It may all go back to our ancestors(祖先),among whom women needed speech skills to take care of their babies and men needed spatial skills to hunt,according to one research.(NMET 2008陕西卷E篇)

  简析:第一句中包含一个that引导的同位语从句,在其中又有一个that引导的定语从句,还有一介词 + 关系代词(among whom)引导的定语从句。注意more women之后省去了与前半句中相同的take up jobs that require ...。

  译文:大脑这些差异也解释了这样的事实:更多的男性从事空间技能的工作,而更多的女性则从事需要语言技能的工作。这种现象也可以追溯到我们的祖先时代,据一项研究表明,在他们当中,女性做的是照看孩子这样的需要语言技能的工作,男性做的是像狩猎这样的需要空间技能的工作。

  实例:59.Which of the following do you agree with according to the fourth paragraph?

  A.Young boys may be stronger than young girls.

  B.More women take up jobs requiring speech skills

  C.Women may have stronger feelings than men.

  D.Our ancestors needed more spatial skills.

  9.In those days,IP rights were easily protected since it was very difficult to obtain intellectual property without paying for it.However,a lot of IP,including songs,films,books and artwork,can be downloaded today free of charge using the Internet.(NMET2008江西卷D篇)

  简析:句中有since引导的原因状语从句,v-ing式作定语(including ...)和状语(without paying .../using the Internet)。

  译文:在那个时代,知识产权很容易受到保护,因为不付费想得到知识产权是很困难的。然而,现在许多知识产权包括歌曲、电影、书籍和艺术品通过使用因特网都可以免费下载。

  实例: 69.What do we know about the Internet according to the passage?

  A.It makes IP rights harder to protect.

  B.It sells songs and films.

  C.It does not affect the way we understand IP rights.

  D.It prevents the production of artwork.

  70.According to paragraph 2,what has "taken the world by storm"?

  A.Intellectual property rights.

  B.The Internet.

  C.Free downloading.

  D.The large number of songs,films and books.

  10.The busier we are,the more important we seem to ourselves and,we imagine,to others.To be unavailable to our friends and family,and to be unable to find time to relax-this has become the model of a successful life.(NMET 2008湖北卷D篇)

  简析:句中有"The + 比较级,the + 比较级"的结构,还有复杂的不定式结构。

  译文:我们越忙,对我们自己而言,而且我们也以为在其他人看来,我们越重要。我们无空帮助朋友,找不到时间照顾家庭,找不到自己放松的时间,这已经成为了成功生活的模式。

  实例:74.According to Paragraph 4,a successful person is one who is believed to ____ .

  A.be able to work without stress

  B.be more talented than other people

  C.be more important than anyone else

  D.be busy working without time to rest

  11.The researchers said that among the problems with some earlier studies is that they often failed to take into account those people most at risk for skin cancer-people with fair skin and freckles(雀斑),for example-are more likely to use sunscreen.As a result,it may appear that sunscreen users get cancer more often.(NMET 2008福建卷E篇)

  简析:第一句的主体结构为:The research said that ...is that they failed to ...,其中第一个that引导一个宾语从句,宾语从句中又含有一个倒装结构,其中主语为that they often ...的一个主语从句,表语为among the problems with ...。破折号间内容为插入语。

  译文:研究员们说,早期研究带来的问题之一是他们没有考虑到那些最有可能患皮肤癌人,比如皮肤白皙和有雀斑的人。可是皮肤白皙的和有雀斑的人最有可能使用防晒剂,结果是好像防晒剂的使用者患皮肤癌更常见。

  实例:73.People with fair skin and freckles______.

  A.seldom use sunscreen

  B.are more in danger of skin cancer

  C.can be free from the harm of the sun

  D.often expose themselves to the sun

  12.Yocum and Bell,who have just completed an art gallery for the city,feel that the experience from decoration of their building,focusing on the inside rather than the outside,has influenced their work.It has also given these architects a chance to show how they can make more out of less.(NMET 2008湖南卷B篇)

  简析:该句中有一个who引导的定语从句,两个宾语从句(分别由that及how引导),v-ing式作定语。第一句的主体结构为:Yocum and Bell feel that the experience has influenced their work。

  译文:刚刚为这座城市建成艺术画廊的约克姆和贝尔,确切感受到装饰他们自己的房子中获得的经验,也就是说,把装饰的注意力放在房子的里面而不是外面对他们的工作产生了影响。同时这使这两位建筑师有了一次机会去展示他们是如何以较少的钱做更多的事。

  实例:63.It can be inferred from the passage that Yocum and Bell______.

  A.benefited a lot from pulling down the roof

  B.turned more old buildings into art galleries

  C.got inspiration from decorating their old building

  D.paid more attention to the outside of the gallery

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