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【英语】高考英语长难句专项指导  

2010-12-24 13:46:38|  分类: 英语乐园 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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原文地址:高考英语长难句专项指导    原文作者:m.feir

要提高学生的读写能力,以适应新的高考题型,就必需从谴词造句着手,尤其要注重突破语篇中的长句、难句,这样才能提高学生的读的能力(也就是一种input 的过程),然后达到把握整个语篇的能力,继而能达到驾御整个语篇(也就是一种output的过程)。本文将介绍高三英语备考中如何突破长难句,提高学生的读写能力。

    一、感知英语高考长难句

    建构主义认为,知识是靠学生自己建构的,而不是靠教师教会的。新课程标准很强调培养学生的自主学习能力,培养学生在获取知识的过程中主动发现、分析、理解并掌握所学知识。因此,我们在教学中注重培养学生的自主学习能力,日让他们主动参与,主动探究,亲身体验、感知英语高考长难句,了解句子结构,分析句子成分,发现规律,并得到理解和掌握。

    1. First put forward by the French mathematician Pierre de Format in the seventeenth centurythe theorem had baffled and beaten the finest mathematical minds including a French woman scientist who made a major advance in working out the problem and who had to dress like a man in order to be able to study at the Ecolab polytechnique. NMET2003.C篇)

    这个定理,先是由十七世纪法国数学家皮尔法特提出,曾使一批杰出的数学大师为难,包括一位法国女科学家,她在解决这个难题方面取得了重大的进展,她曾女扮男装为了能够在伊科尔理工学院学习。

    简析:夹杂过去分词短语,现在分词短语,动名词及两个定语从句。

    2. It is difficult to measure the quantity of paper used as a result of use of Internet-connected computers although just about anyone who works in an office can tell you that when e-mail is introduced the printers start working overtime. That is the growing demand for paper in recent years is largely due to the increased use of the Internet. NMET2003.E篇)

    由于因特网的使用,计算所使用的纸张的数量是很难的,然而几乎任何在办公室工作的人能告诉你,当引进电子邮件后,打印机就开始超时工作。也就是说近年来人们对于纸张的日益需求主要是由于因特网越来越多的使用。

    简析:夹杂较复杂的句型结构,关键词just about几乎;overtime超时地。

    3. Tales from Animal Hospital will delight all fans of the programme and anyone who was a lively interest in their pet whether it be a cat dog or snake NMET2003.C篇)

    来自动物医院(这个电视节目)的故事(这本书),将使这个电视节目的爱好者以及对无论是猫、狗还是蛇这类宠物有浓厚兴趣的任何人感到高兴。

    简析:夹杂有一个定语从句,一个状语从句,关键词fans…爱好者,whether…or…,无论是还是

    4.Still he could not help thinking that if anything should happen the nearest person he contact by radio unless there was a ship nearby would be on an island 885 miles away.

    他禁不住寻思起来,要是果真有什么意外,除非附近有条船,他用无线电能联系上的最近的人远在885英里以外的岛上。简析:含虚拟语气,宾语从句,定语从句。

    5.They had no connection with the outside world for more than a thousand years giving them plenty of time to build more than 1000 huge stone figures called moat for which the island is most famous.NMET2003.A篇)

    他们已有一千多年与外界没有联系,这给他们充足的时间来修建1000多座巨大的石像,被称为莫艾,因为有这个东西这个岛屿极其出名。

    简析:夹杂有现在分词短语,过去分词短语及定语从句。

    6.These are times when nothing is important but the bottom line when you can do things any old way as long as it "pays" when in short people look on work as a path to ever-increasing consumption(消费) rather than a way to realize their own abilities. NMET2006广东卷。B篇)

    简析:夹杂有定语从句,时间状语从句,条件状语从句,关键词rather than而不是。

    7.Although unemployment hits all levels of the American economy including those of skilled and semi-skilled workers it is most common at the bottom of the class structure and increasingly less common at each level upward. NMET2006广东卷。C篇)

    简析:夹杂有让步状语从句,现在分词短语,过去分词。

    8.A survey carried out by care4free.net of over 2700 European office workers from the UK France and Germany found that workplace dissatisfaction increased greatly with the age of the computer equipment. NMET2006浙江卷。D篇)

    简析:夹杂有过去分词短语,宾语从句,并且主语、谓语出现分隔现象。

    通过以上高考考例分析,我们发现英语的长难句有如下几个特点:句子信息量大,结构复杂,或附加成分多(几种从句同时出现),分隔现象普遍(主谓分隔、同谓语分隔、定语分隔等),有时还出现省略现象。这些都增加了阅读的难度。因此在指导学生回归语篇复习时,运用所学知识去突破英语长难句。

二、课文复习回归语篇,把握英语长难句

    新课程倡导自主学习就是为了大力发挥学生的潜能,提高他们学习的独立性。从教到学的转化过程也就是使学生从依赖到独立的过程。因此在回归语篇复习时,让学生学会运用学习策略,自主学习,把握语篇中的英语长难句。

    1. Our chemistry teacher Mr Longford takes us to public science lectures about four times a term and these are always very interesting as the lecturers are  people who have made real discoveries in their area of science. NSW.Book1.Module5.P49

    简析:夹杂有同位语,并列句,状语从句,定语从句。

    2. While he was traveling in space Yang spoke to two astronauts abroad the International Space Station which is orbiting the earthAmerican astronaut Edward Lu and Russia cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko. NSW.Book2.Module5.P43

    简析:夹杂有状语从句,定语从句,同位语。

    3. This is because living with a foreign family for one or two weeks means that you have to speak their language and as a result you improve fast. NSW.Book3.Module2.P19

    简析:夹杂有表语从句,宾语从句,状语从句。

    4. The situation in central London where drivers spent fifty percent of their time in queues became so bad that the local government decided to do something about it. NSW.Book4.Module2.P19

    简析:夹杂有定语从句,状语从句。

    5. Forced to change his plans he worked for several years as a pilot on a steamboat taking passengers up and down the Mississippi the great river which flows from the north of the US near the Canadian border down to the Gulf of Mexico. NSW.Book5.Module3.P29

    简析:夹杂有过去分词短语, 现在分词短语,定语从句和同位语。

    6. The reason why Brave World is still so famous is that it describes a terrifying future world that is becoming more and more possible. NSW.Book6.Module5.P49

    简析:夹杂有两个定语从句和表语从句。

    7. "My message is that it doesn't matter if you're black white fat thin old and young-we're all the same it's a great world and you can do something with your life." NSW.Book7.Module4.P55

    简析:夹杂有表语从句和主语从句。

    8. In fact there are three South Poles a ceremonial Pole which is on the moving glacier a geographical or true Pole and a magnetic Pole which changes its position according to the movement of the Earth.NSW.Book8.Module1.P11

    简析:夹杂有两个定语从句

三、语篇复习立足谴词造句,狠抓书面表达常用句型

    写作最重要的是把该表达的意思表达清楚、准确,因此,在平时的写作训练中,务必要求学生从基础练起。句子是文章的基础,只有掌握基本词汇,基本句型,在写作时才能够达到最起码的"达意".因此笔者在训练学生的写作时,首先从基本句型讲练,再到高级句型讲练,最后到一句多种表达方式讲练;重点突破长难句。

    1.基本句型讲练

    英文的基本句型有五种,它们是:

    A.主语 + 系动词 + 表语 SVC

    B.主语 + 动词 SV

    C.主语 + 动词 + 宾语 SVO

    D.主语 + 动词 + 宾语 + 宾语 SVOO

    E.主语 + 动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语 SVOC

    A.主语 + 系动词 + 表语 SVC

    英文中的系动词主要是指Be动词的各种变化形式,也包括那些有时起系动词作用的实义动词。这类动词常见的有:appear(相似、显得),become(变成) come(变得) feel(摸起来) fall(变得)   get(变得) grow(变得) hold(保持) keep(保持) look(看上去),remain(仍然是) seem看起来)  stand(保持) stay(保持) smell(闻起来) sound(听起来) turn(变成) taste(尝起来)等。

    例如:This machine is in good condition .    这台机器的情况良好。

    The garden smells pleasant .    这座花园香气怡人。

    Silk feels soft and smooth .    丝绸摸起来又软又滑。

    B.主语 + 动词 SV

    这种句型中的谓语动词是不及物动词,没有直接宾语;但常带有状语。

    例如:The water is boiling .   水开了。

    They have been waiting there for hours.   他们一直在那儿等了数小时。

    The train will leave soon.     火车就要开了。

    C.主语 + 动词 + 宾语 SVO

    这一句型中的谓语动词是及物动词,那么它必须带有自己的宾语。在英文中,当一个动词(包括单个动词和动词短语)作及物动词用时,它必须要有自己的宾语(除非是宾语在上下文里很明确地提到过,为避免不必要的重复,才会省去。),否则会视为"句子不完整".

    Tom has a brother.     汤姆有一个弟弟。

    They wanted to have a rest.  他们想歇息一会儿。

    He successfully carried out his plan .  他成功地实行了他的计划。

    D.主语 + 动词 + 宾语 + 宾语 SVOO

    此句型中的谓语动词后接两个宾语:前一个宾语称为"间接宾语",多由代词或名词充当;后一个宾语称为"直接宾语",往往由名词充当。这类句型常有"给某人某物""送某人某物""留给某人某物"等意思。常见的这类谓语动词有:

    award(授予某人……), buy(给某人买……),bring(带给某人……), get(给某人弄到……), give(给某人……), hand(递给某人……), lend(借给某人……), leave(留给某人……), pay(支付某人…… pass(递给某人……), read(给某人读……), rent(租赁某人……), recommend(将某人推荐给…… send(送给某人……), show(给某人看……),tell(告诉某人……), take(给某人拿……), teach(教某人…… write(给某人写……)等。例如:

    (注:上面各词的中文释义是刻意按照该词的常用动词句型而给的,以便于大家更好地理解该词出现于哪个基本句型中。)

    He brought me a coat.  他给我带来一件大衣。

    Pass me the dictionary please.  请将词典递给我。

    I lend him my bicycle.  我把自行车借给他了。

    E.主语 + 动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语 SVOC

    此句型概括了这样一种情况:有些及物动词的后面有时常带复合宾语结构(即:宾语 + 宾语补足语)。在这一结构中,宾语补足语是对宾语"做什么""怎么样"等方面进行补充说明,从意义和结构上来说是必不可少。在这一结构中,宾语和谓语动词当然是"动宾关系",而宾语和它的补足语在逻辑上却是"主谓关系".那么,这时的宾语就类似于中文里的"兼语".宾语补足语可由名词、形容词、动词不定式、分词或介词短语担当。常带复合宾语结构的及物动词有:

    ask(请求,要求) allow(容许) appoint(任命) believe(相信) call(称)   cause(使得) catch(发现) consider(认为) elect(选举) expect(预期) feel(感觉到) find(发现) get(使得) have(使,让) hear(听到) imagine(想象) keep(保持) know(知道)   let(使) listen to(听) look at(看,瞧) make(使) notice(注意到) see(看见) smell(闻到) start(使……开始) watch(注视,看) tell(告诉) think(想,认为) want(想要) wish(希望)等等。例如:

    We elected him our monitor .   我们选他当班长。

    The news made me happy .   那消息使我很高兴。

    We know him to be an expert .    我们知道他是专家。

    He heard somebody opening the door . 他听见有人在开门。

    I found myself in dark .    我发现自己还蒙在鼓里。

    我们要记住以上的五个句型并不难,重要的是要利用这五个句型去看英文句子。那么,再长、再复杂的句子也就被你看成了那么"几块",即:主、谓、宾、补(表语,主语补足语,宾语补足语)、再加上定语、状语。这就如同"造框架建筑".先定型,再完善。我们学语言也应该先从语言架构着手,再去解决细节问题。这就从语篇的角度大大地提高了学习进度。从而也避免了那种"只见树木,不见林"错误倾向。这样做对提高学习的自信心有极大的好处。随着我们语言素材的不断积累和增加,对句子结构的不断熟悉和了解,我们的学习就会越来越主动。

2.高级句型讲练

    遵循由简到繁,循序渐进的认知规律,在学生掌握五个基本句型的基础上,慢慢过渡到较为复杂的高级句型,帮助学生逐步提高写作技能。

    1)、祈使句型

    Do let me know if you decided to come or need any further information. 如果您决定来或需要什么信息,一定要让我知道。(2004全国卷IV

    Now please allow me to introduce you some of our school rules here. 现在请允许我给您介绍一些学校规则。(2005安徽)

    2)、非谓语动词句式

    We'll mostly stay at home in the evening watching TV playing games and meeting friends.晚上我们主要呆在家里看电视、打游戏和会友。 2004全国卷II

    Chatting online students can more freely express their feelings and opinions. 在网上聊天,学生们可以更加自由地表达他们的思想。(2005江西)

    3)、it作形式主语或宾语句式

    It is known to us all that some students cheat in examinations at school.众所周知,一些学生在学校考试中作弊。(2005福建)

    It must be made clear that we should never be late for class or leave school before it is over.

    这很清楚,上课应不迟到不早退。(2005安徽)

    4)、并列句结构

    并列句即是用并列连词把两个或两个以上的、具有逻辑关系的简单句连为一体,常用的并列连词有:and but or so for yet however therefore when while not only…but also…等。

    1To build gates and walls will become necessary and that will be harmful to the appearance of a city.NMET2002

    2The car didn't stop but drove off at great speed heading west. NMET2000

    3I was walking along Park Road towards the east when an elderly man came out of the park on the other side of the street. NMET2000

    5)、感叹句型

    What+名词+主语+谓语!

    How+形容词/副词+主语+谓语!

    What terrible weather we're having

    How glad we were to see the crops and vegetables growing well

    6)、定语从句结构

    This is a big decision  which has to be made by people in Beijing. 2005全国卷III

    But I'd like to attend the English lectures from which I can get more information on British and American cultures. 2005湖南)

    7)、时间状语从句

    The next morning the car hit the man while he was crossing the road. NMET2000

    8)、原因状语从句

    Since it is so easy to get a rabbit like that why should I work so hard all day long  2005广东)

    In my opinion it is wrong to cheat in examination because it breaks the rules of schools. 2005福建)

    9)、条件状语从句

    If there is anything I can do for you I would be more than glad to help.2004全国卷I

    10)、地点状语从句

    Where the playground used to be now stands another new building -our library.

    11)、结果状语从句

    He put on so much weight that he found it difficult to climb the stairs.  2005北京春)

    12)、让步状语从句

    Although he is small and short now he believes he will grow up to be a tall and strong young man like Yao Ming who he admires. 2005北京)

    13)、主语从句

    What you are studying is badly needed nowadays in China. 2005湖北)

    14)、表语从句

    My suggestion is that we go to Beidaihe to spend our holidays.

    15)、宾语从句

    I'm sure you'll have no trouble finding us.

    16)、同位语从句

    We're very glad to hear the news that you have passed the entrance examination.

3.一句多种表达方式讲练(每组例句中,A句一般,B句高级)

    1A. We like football best.

    B. Our favorite sport are football.

    2A. You can find my house easily.

    B. You'll have no trouble finding my house.

    3A.I hope you can write me back soon.

    B. I am looking forward to hearing from you.

    4A. My hometown is in the south of China.

    B. My hometown is located in the south of China.

    5 A. We'll try our best to make you happy in Beijing.

    B. We'll try our best to make your stay here in Beijing a pleasant experience.

    通过以上对句子成分的探究、分析到达到理解;再加上从简到繁、循序渐进的,从低级到高级的句型讲、练结合,使学生对英语的句子,尤其是长、难句有了起码的感性认识,再加上老师平时课堂语篇复习的"回归"点拔,平时在阅读语篇的"重点突破" ,学生的悟性自然慢慢提高,理顺了长难句,也就扫清了阅读、写作中的"拦路虎" ,读、写水平就会不断提高。

    四、结束语

    本文针对新高考写作方案对写作技巧的新要求,介绍了笔者在高三英语备考复习中如何立足谴词造句,突破长难句,狠抓书面表达常用句型以提高学生的读写能力的一些措施,旨在抛砖引玉,探索出一条短期高效、循序渐进的快速提高学生的读写能力的方法,以期对学生有所帮助。

 

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